foot binding reason

What Cummings realized—the reason he hadn’t seen these women elsewhere in China—was that for the most part they physically couldn’t go out. Read: What high heels can teach about gendered ‘truths’, Like recent research that makes visible the long-lasting brain damage inflicted by childhood abuse or PTSD, examining the medical consequences of corsets, high heels, and foot-binding in detail forces us to look their effects in the face. Read: The peculiar history of foot-binding in China. Foot binding, the cruel practice of mutilating the feet of young girls, was once pervasive in turn-of-the-century China, where it was seen as a sign of wealth and marriage eligibility. Girls were required to bind their feet between the ages of 4 and 9, based on how much their feet had grown. The ideal length for a bound foot was 3 Chinese inches (寸), which is around 4 inches (10 cm). Foot fetishes are extremely popular, but still kind of taboo – here's what you need to know about them, and why your love of feet shouldn't make you feel ashamed. A new study suggests feet were bound for another reason. The one of the most common health problem relating to foot binding … The 1928 census reveals surprisingly low proportions of women with currently bound feet in the northeastern province of Liaoning (8.1%) and the city of Beijing (11.6%) (see Table 7.1). To achieve a more suitable size and shape, young girls’ feet were crushed repeatedly over years. “I thought it was just curious.” By that time, he had been living in Beijing for two or three months, and he and his family had traveled extensively through the city and around the country. Supposedly, the corrupt last emperor of the Shang, King Zhou, had a favorite concubine named Daji who was born with clubfoot. As health care conditions were low in ancient times, toes were easily infected and rotted. During those travels, he had never once seen a woman with her feet in the same condition as those of the second study participant. A less severe form in Sichuan, called "cucumber foot" (huanggua jiao) due to its slender shape, folded the four toes under but did not distort the heel and taper the ankle. In her book Wanderlust: A History of Walking, Rebecca Solnit details laws and practices going back centuries that limited women’s free movement. Advertisement. For upholding this tradition for so long, the motive was for men to be able to dominate women. At that time a woman with a pair of small feet was regarded as a beauty. On a more positive note, foot binding also created strong intergenerational bonds among the women, since they did all the binding and also had their feet bound… However, if we look back to the fashion trends of the past, we can see that people were actually prepared to risk their lives just to keep up with the latest fashion trend. Foot-binding was a practice first carried out on young girls in Tang Dynasty China to restrict their normal growth and make their feet as small as possible. Soon after, another woman came in with a crutch and an odd kind of shoe. Foot binding, the cruel practice of mutilating the feet of young girls, was once pervasive in turn-of-the-century China, where it was seen as a sign of wealth and marriage eligibility. Brain scans that show the effects of trauma, or peer-reviewed research on the epigenetic effects of living through a war or genocide, are evidence that survivors’ accounts of abiding damage aren’t imagined. This usually caused the bones to break, thus causing extreme pain. The restrictions of foot-binding and other physical constraints imposed on girls and women are obvious; the damage is real. Foot binding was a symbol of purity and discipline. In his study, Cummings concluded that older Chinese women were less prone to hip fractures than American women in part because the former squatted much more often, which builds bone density and strengthens hips. In reality, the … Advertisement. This usually caused the bones to break, thus causing extreme pain. Societies in Shanghai that were against foot binding began to form during 1895 and grew rapidly in numbers and spread across the country. Foot binding originated in the tenth or eleventh century by dancers and courtesans. When Cummings asked about the woman’s feet, his colleagues—many of them female doctors in their late 50s—told him that they had been bound. Han civilians constituted large majorities in both areas, although significant banner populations resided in each. Foot-binding was a widespread custom in China for hundreds of years, though the severity and type of binding varied considerably over time and space. They invited more than 300 women to a lab at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, where participants performed a series of regular motions (e.g., standing from a chair with their arms crossed, squatting) along with tests for grip strength and gait speed. Toenails would often become ingrown, thus becoming infected and causing injuries to the … Foot-binding reduced these points to only the big toe and heel bone; the arch was shoved up to make the foot shorter, and the other toes were bent under the ball. Bossen believes the stories of the women she interviewed might have gotten lost in history as their generation passed away. The end result, no matter the motivation, was severe physical impairment. Binding foot could change women's entire life. The second reason is family honour. Jo Farrell, a Hong Kong–based photographer and cultural anthropologist, spent several years putting together a small art book of China’s last “lotus feet” women, titled Living History: Bound Feet Women of China. These anti-foot binding societies conveyed their teachings through three different methods. Bound feet were considered to be highly appealing, Many of the women later regretted practicing the tradition. In response to a petition for that requirement to be abolished, Japan’s minister of health and welfare defended it as “occupationally necessary,” despite the strain that high heels put on backs, knees, and foot bones, as well as the risk of vertebral slippage. In many cases the intense pain of foot-binding was exacerbated by infection (which sometimes led to gangrene), hindered circulation, and weakened bones and ligaments. Foot binding originated in the tenth or eleventh century by dancers and courtesans. This was the horrendously painful practice of tightly binding and, essentially, breaking women’s feet in order to change their shape (specifically so that they appeared to be smaller and pointier). “A male counterpart,” Cummings said of foot-binding, “is impossible to imagine—both because impairment of male function of any sort was not imaginable and because, had anything like that occurred, it would have been written about at the time, probably with outrage.”. Women with bound feet could not walk and had to totter about. A. foot binding in China B. neo-Confucianism C. standards of beauty D. women in ancient China 6. Foot-binding was a widespread custom in China for hundreds of years, though the severity and type of binding varied considerably over time and space. Foot binding was practiced in various forms and its prevalence varied in different regions. Foot-binding reduced these points to only the big toe and heel bone; the arch was shoved up to make the foot shorter, and the other toes were bent under the ball. Foot deformity: Foot binding is actually a practice to bind the toes over to the sole of the foot with force, which deformed the feet. Appiah explores some fascinating socio-cultural explanations of why this practice took root. Foot binding was a way to show status. In the 12th century, foot binding became much more widespread, and by the early Qing Dynasty (in the mid-17th century), every girl who wished to marry had her feet bound. The women he met spent much of their life in or very close to their home, their disability preventing them from venturing farther out. Foot binding started in China somewhere in the 12 th century, during the Song Dynasty. Further clinical study of foot-binding is nearly impossible; the women who were girls when it was outlawed are dying out. The Manchu “flower bowl” or “horse-hoof” shoes designed to imitate bound feet, the mid 1880s. In certain periods in France, for example, women were arrested if they were found walking on certain streets at certain times. Some working women in Jiangsumade a pretense of binding while keeping their feet natural. The process could start when she was as young as 3 years old, though 5 was more common, and was repeated for two or three years—her toes routinely rebroken and bound again more tightly. The most common reason is that foot binding is often thought of as a prerequisite for marriage. The women he’d met with bound feet, Cummings eventually wrote in a report on the cohort, were much more likely to have fallen in the previous year than women without, had lower bone density in their hips and lower spines, and had greater trouble getting up from a chair without assistance. “According to the legend, foot binding began when an ancient Chinese emperor’s dancer bound her feet to suggest the shape of a new moon or a flower.” “Girls with tiny, well-bound feet increased their chances of marrying into a good family and moving up in society.” Question 4. This was a practice where a young girl’s feet were tightly wrapped. What is this passage mostly about? She describes her life as torture. Foot binding resulted in the forward curvature of the lumbar vertebrae as a result of a woman struggling to balance and walk properly. Foot binding is a unique Chinese feudal society decorative habits. Although the consequences for millions of Chinese women living with what he calls a “forced disability” were profound, Cummings’s study was initially turned down by journals like The Lancet and The New England Journal of Medicine. The practice of foot-binding began to be banned in the early 20th century, though some women, like those interviewed by Bossen, kept their feet bound their entire lives. In one version, the practice goes back to the earliest documented dynasty, the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 BCE–1046 BCE). While at the beginning it was considered a symbol of high social status and wealth, eventually it spread to all women, regardless their social position. Zhou Guizhen, an old Chinese woman who was among the last women in China with bound feet, in an interview for NPR.org, said, “I can’t dance, I can’t move properly. A. because women's feet were considered dirty B. because only a woman's husband could see her feet C. to preserve the illusion of ideal beauty D. because men did not like to look at feet 5. Examining the debilitating, lifelong physical effects that foot-binding had on Chinese girls can be crucial for understanding the lengths to which societies will go to restrict women’s freedom. More Videos ... MUST WATCH. So binding foot was the way for gaining this security. 10. For several hundred years, millions of Chinese girls had their bodies painfully misshapen to conform to a prevailing social expectation. There are many stories of how the practice of foot-binding started, but the most famous say that it began around 970 A.D., during the rule of Emperor Li Yu. Foot binding, or 'lotus feet', stands as a symbol of a bygone China. For upholding this tradition for so long, the motive was for men to be able to dominate women. Replay. Physiological Implication. Origins of Foot Binding . In many cases the arch was broken completely. Foot-binding – a widespread custom in China which lasted for over 1,000 years – from the 10th to 20th century, is considered by many to be one of the most dangerous fashion trends in history. Foot binding is an old Chinese custom of wrapping girls' feet with cloth in order to stop them from growing with age. Both told him that because foot-binding was essentially extinct, it wasn’t a current medical problem. foot binding was clearly detrimental to a woman’s well-being.” B “Virtuous women were prized according to the tenets of Neo-Confucianism, and foot binding was the ultimate symbol of a woman’s purity and discipline.” C “According to the legend, foot binding began when an ancient Chinese emperor’s Bound Feet - Beautiful Like Flowers Chinese women's feet were bound in feudal China. Each excruciating procedure forced the girls to learn to walk anew, rereading the ground from an unfamiliar position and through unimaginable pain. Her feet are bound till this day. Although foot-binding was banned in China, in 1911 many women and girls still had their feet bound, anyway. There is survivors of footing binding, like Zhou Gulahen,86, says she regrets binding her feet. foot binding was the ultimate symbol of a woman’s purity and discipline.” C “According to the legend, foot binding began when an ancient Chinese emperor’s dancer bound her feet to suggest the shape of a new moon or a flower.” D “Girls with tiny, well-bound feet increased their chances of marrying into a good family and moving up in society.” 4. Origins of Foot Binding Various myths and folktales relate to the origin of foot-binding in China. More recent studies have shown that foot-binding was likely practiced not purely for the sake of marriage, but also to keep girls at home and engaged in handicrafts, such as spinning cotton, in order to contribute to their family’s income. Whether they have the will, though, is less certain. Foot-binding was one. Foot fetishes are extremely popular, but still kind of taboo – here's what you need to know about them, and why your love of feet shouldn't make you feel ashamed. He finally sent his report to the American Journal of Public Health in 1996 with a note to explain that although foot-binding is no longer practiced, “the study has enormous implications for how we treat women.”, Cummings’s hip-fracture study had a nearly unheard-of 95 percent participation rate, and about 15 percent of the women he studied had bound feet. The most common reason is that foot binding is often thought of as a prerequisite for marriage. NSFW REDWOOD CITY, CALIFORNIA — Foot-binding, one of China’s bizarre traditions, has puzzled researchers for years — but now a new book claims work was the real reason for the practice. They had a wider range of mobility than the women Cummings met in Beijing—among them were women who worked in fields, raised children, fixed chimneys, and went bowling—but descriptions of their childhood binding were no less horrifying. Cummings went to Beijing in 1991 to study why older Chinese women had 80 percent fewer hip fractures than American women of the same age range. Foot-binding – a widespread custom in China which lasted for over 1,000 years – from the 10th to 20th century, is considered by many to be one of the most dangerous fashion trends in history. Girls whose feet were bound would never again be able to walk fluidly, severely limiting their ability to move through the world. The one of the most common health problem relating to foot binding was infection. Infection was the most common problem with foot binding. The second reason was that, due to the binding, the foot became a perfect arch and replicated the structure of the crescent moon, and came to be taken as an erotic symbol. lisasee. The next example is that of foot-binding in China. NSFW REDWOOD CITY, CALIFORNIA — Foot-binding, one of China’s bizarre traditions, has puzzled researchers for years — but now a new book claims work was the real reason for the practice. This was a practice where a young girl’s feet were tightly wrapped. In the 1950s, anti-foot-binding inspectors often came to people’s homes to forcibly remove the bindings on women’s feet and publicly humiliated any bound women they found. He was seeing them in the lab only because transportation to the hospital was provided. Foot-binding, which embodies both Confucianism moral codes and men’s aes-thetic appreciation of women, was adopted to distinguish themselves in the marriage market and served as a social ladder for them to climb up. The second reason is family honour. These two reasons led to it becoming a prerequisite for marriage. The second reason was that, due to the binding, the foot became a perfect arch and replicated the structure of the crescent moon, and came to be taken as an erotic symbol. For decades in China, young girls’ bones were broken and their feet tightly bound in a painful process that would eventually make them appear more desirable to men , according to historians. While it might be hard for us to understand what made these women to go trough this horrifying procedure and risk their lives, it seems that it was more than just a fashion trend and that is probably why it was so difficult to put an end to this odd tradition. Foot binding changes women's entire life . Because having bound feet was a sign of sophistication and being upper-class, women without bound feet had little chance of marrying into nobility. Families with a great reputation, families wanting to maintain their goods reputation, bind their daughter's feet 10. This restricted their movements and led them to be around the house. Widely used as a method to distinguish girls of the upper class from everyone else, and later as a way for the lower classes to improve their social prospects, the practice of foot-binding would c… most attractive qualities in a prospective bride, The Casualties of Women's War on Body Hair, most workplaces still require women to wear high heels, defended it as “occupationally necessary,”. So, foot binding was a way for families to increase the odds of their daughters marrying well. These two reasons led to it becoming a prerequisite for marriage. In many cases the intense pain of foot-binding was exacerbated by infection (which sometimes led to gangrene), hindered circulation, and weakened bones and ligaments. Having bound feet shifted the burden of weight to the lower body which put pressure on the pelvis and led to pelvic pain. The tradition, known as foot binding, eventually came to symbolize China's backwardness, a relic from the country's distant past. Carefully sanitised by euphemistic nonsense, foot binding was considered a quaint cultural taste that no outsider could ever fathom. Foot-binding – a widespread custom in China which lasted for over 1,000 years – from the 10th to 20th century, is considered by many to be one of the most dangerous fashion trends in history. In Japan, most workplaces still require women to wear high heels, even while they’re job hunting. But for one of the only medical descriptions of foot-binding’s long-term consequences, we have to turn to Steve Cummings, an epidemiologist and professor emeritus at the University of California at San Francisco. Older Chinese women with bound feet, though, had a completely different story. By Katie Hunt, CNN. A girl’s feet typically remained bound with bandages and strips of either silk or cotton, depending on what her family could afford, for the rest of her life. Intact feet, girls were told, would damage their marriage prospects. Considered an attractive quality, the effects of the process were painful and permanent. The fashion trend was soon adopted by upper-class women in the south of China and eventually, it spread to the north of the country. A Chinese Golden Lily Foot, Lai Afong, c.1870s. The binding process would last for 2 years until the feet would take the desirable shape. Yet despite foot-binding’s brutality, and hundreds of anthropological studies addressing it, the long-term medical consequences of the practice have been largely neglected. In spite of the pain after each kneading, the girl is forced to walk, in order to help re-establish circulation.” In plain English, that means that all of a girl’s toes except the first were crushed toward the bottom of her foot and bound with cloth strips. Corsets were another; only rarely do we remember that Victorian women’s hourglass shape came at the expense of their lungs and rib cages. The method of binding feet varied in different regions, and it was most common among women in urban areas since women in peasant communities needed their feet to be fully functional so they can work in the fields. But women have been bent in more literal ways too. Chinese foot-binding is perceived today as unusual, gruesome, an antiquated fetish , an erotic tradition. The main cause of foot binding being outlawed is because it resulted as death. Foot-binding is said to have been inspired by a tenth-century court dancer named Yao Niang who bound her feet into the shape of a new moon. Reportedly, the Emperor’s favorite consort, Yao-Niang, bound her feet into the shape of a new moon and performed a dance on the points of her feet, on the lotus in front of the Emperor. If a family had a daughter whose foot was bounded, then they were perceived by their neighbors to be able to have a capable and working member of their family not work. So, foot binding started with the royal court and then spread throughout China, beginning in the south of the country and soon reaching the north. Many people would say that some of the modern fashion trends are odd and in some cases dangerous. Painful Memories for China's Footbinding Survivors Millions of Chinese women bound their feet, a status symbol that allowed them to marry into money. “The metatarsals are pressed together as the bandages are applied. “Bound Feet in China,” a 1937 article in The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, gives one of the few detailed physical descriptions of foot-binding currently available, but still couches the cruelty of the process in metaphor and largely ignores the lasting health consequences. 2016-09-09 10:54:35 1028 ℃ This paper reproduced from the network. Just how much is society willing to damage women in order to control them? Footbinding usually began when girls were between 4 and 6 years old; some were as young as 3, and some as old as 12. Humans took millions of years to evolve into bipedal walkers, relying on several points of the foot shifting weight and balance as we take each step. As foot binding became entrenched during the Song dynasty (960-1279), education for women was strictly curtailed and independent property rights outlawed [sources: Evans, Ross, Holman]. “The way these women avoided injury,” he said, “was by not doing anything.”. 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